Elements of Style

May 02 2016

- writing is hard, even for authors who do it all the time - we are all writers and readers as well as communicators - we need at times to please and satisfy ourselves with clear and almost perfect thought Glossary Clause - clause - a group of related words that contains a subject and a predicate - independent clause - a group of words with a subject and verb that can stand alone as a sentence - dependent clause - a group of words that includes a subject and verb but is subordinate to an independent clause in a sentence - dependent clauses begin with either a subordinating conjunction (as if, because, since) or a relative pronoun (who, which, that) - when it gets dark, we'll find a restaurant that has music - relative clause - a clause introduced by a relative pronoun (who, which, that) or by a relative adverb (where, when, why) - restrictive clause - a phrase or clause that limits the essential meaning of the sentence element it modifies or identifies - professional athletes who perform exceptionally should earn stratospheric salaries - conjunction - a word that joins words, phrases, clauses or sentences - coordinating conjunction - joins grammatically equivalent elements. and, but, or, nor, yet, so for - correlative conjunction - joins the same kinds of elements, both, and; either, or; neither, nor - compound sentence - two or more independent clauses joined by a conjunction or a semicolon - loose sentence - a sentence that expresses the main idea and then attaches modifiers, qualifiers, and additional details - he was determined to succeed, with or without the promotion he was hoping for and in spite of the difficulties he was confronting at every turn - periodic sentence - a sentence that expresses the main idea at the end - with or without their parents' consent, and whether or not they receive the assignment relocation they requested, they are determined to get married - phrase - a group of related words that functions as a unit but lacks a subject, a verb, or both (without the resources to continue) - sentence fragment - a group of words that is not grammatically a complete sentence but is punctuated as one (because it mattered greatly) - syntax - the order or arrangement of words in a sentence, may exhibit parallelism, inversion, or other formal characteristics - I came, I saw, I conquered, whose woods these are I think I know - transition - a word or group of words that helps coherence in writing by showing the connections between ideas - William Carlos Williams was influenced by the poetry of Walt Whitman. Moreover, ... In Addition .... - voice - the attribute of a verb that indicates whether its subject is active or passive - Janet played the guitar, the guitar was played by Janet - case - the form of a noun or pronoun that reflects its grammatical function in a sentence as subject, object, or possessor (they, them, their) - she gave her employees a raise that pleased them greatly - tense - the time of a verb's action or state of being, such as past, present, or future (saw, see, will see) - agreement - the correspondence of a pronoun with its antecedent in person, number, and gender - as soon as Karen finished the exam, she picked up her books and left the room - and of a verb with its subject in person and number - Karen goes to Cal Tech; her sisters go to UCLA - number - a feature of nouns, pronouns, and a few verbs, referring to singular or plural - a subject and its corresponding verb must be consistent in number; a pronoun should agree in number with its antecedent - a solo flute plays; two oboes join in Subject - subject - the noun or pronoun that indicates what a sentence is about, and which the principal verb of the sentence elaborates - the new Steven Spielberg movie is a box office hit - compound subject - two or more simple subjects joined by a conjunction - Hemingway and Fitzgerald had little in common - noun - a word that names a person, place, thing or idea. most nouns have a plural form and a possessive form (Carol, the park, the cut, democracy) - proper noun - the name of a particular person, place, or thing, is capitalized (Frank Sinatra, Boston, Moby Dick) - common noun - names classes of people, places or things, is not capitalized (singers, cities, books) - articles - the words a, an, and the, which signal or introduce nouns - definite article - the, refers to a particular item (the report) - indefinite articles - a and an refer to a general item or one not already mentioned (an apple) - pronoun - a word that can replace a noun or another pronoun to make sentences less cumbersome and repetitive (he, which, none, you) - antecedent - the noun to which a pronoun refers, must agree in person, number and gender (Michael and his teammates moved off campus) - nominative pronoun - a pronoun that functions as a subject or a subject complement (I, we, you, he, she, it, they, who) - indefinite pronoun - a pronoun that refers to an unspecified person (anybody) or thing (something) - relative pronoun - a pronoun that connects a dependent clause to a main clause in a sentence - who, whom, whose, which, that, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever - possessive - the case of nouns and pronouns that indicates ownership or possession (Harold's, ours, mine) - pronominal possessive - possessive pronouns (her, its, theirs) - modifier - a word or phrase that qualifies, describes, or limits the meaning of a word, phrase or clause (frayed ribbon, dancing flowers, worldly wisdom) - nonrestrictive modifier - a phrase or clause that does not limit or restrict the essential meaning of the element it modifies - my youngest niece, who lives in Ann Arbor, is a magazine editor - adjective - a word that modifies, quantifies, or otherwise describes a noun or pronoun (drizzly November, midnight dreary, only requirement) - adjectival modifier - a word, phrase or clause that acts as an adjective in qualifying the meaning of a noun or pronoun - your country, a turn-of-the-century style, people who are always late - appositive - a noun or noun phrase that renames or adds identifying information to a noun it immediately follows - his brother, an accountant with Arthur Andersen, was recently promoted Predicate - predicate - the verb and its related words that expresses what the subject does, experiences, or is. - birds fly, the partygoers celebrated wildly for a long time - verb - a word or group of words that expresses the action or indicates the state of being of the subject. - verbs activate sentences, must agree with subject in person and number - transitive verb - a verb that requires a direct object to complete its meaning (they washed their new car) - intransitive verb - does not require an object (the audience laughed), many verbs can be both - direct object - a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a transitive verb (Pearson publishes books) - indirect object - a noun or pronoun that indicates to whom or for whom, to what or for what the action of a transitive verb is performed - I asked her a question, Ed gave the door a kick - object - a noun or pronoun that completes a prepositional phrase or the meaning of a transitive verb - Frost offered his audience a poetic performance they would likely never forget - preposition - a word that relates its object (a noun, pronoun, or -ing verb form) to another word in the sentence - she is the leader of our group, we opened the door by picking the lock, she went out the window - prepositional phrase - a group of words consisting of a preposition, its object, and any of the object's modifiers - Georgia on my mind - linking verb - a verb that joins the subject of a sentence to its complement - Professor Chapman is a philosophy teacher, they were ecstatic - complement - a word or phrase (especially a noun or adjective) that completes the predicate - subject complements - complete linking verbs and rename or describe the subject - Martha is my neighbour, she seems shy - object complements - complete transitive verbs by describing or renaming the direct object - they found the play exciting, Robert considers Mary a wonderful wife - adverb - a word that modifies or otherwise qualifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb - gestures gracefully, exceptionally quiet engine - adverbial phrase - a phrase that functions as an adverb (Landon laughs with abandon) - auxiliary verb - a verb that combines with the main verb to show differences in tense, person and voice - the most common auxiliaries are forms of be, do and have - I am going, we did not go, they have gone - modal auxiliaries - any of the verbs that combine with the main verb to express: - necessity (must), obligation (should), permission (may), probability (might), possibility (could), ability (can) or tentativeness (would) - Mary might wash the car - verbal - a verb form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb (thinking can be fun, an embroidered hankerchief) - gerund - the -ing form of a verb that functions as a noun (hiking is good excercise, she was praised for her playing) - infinitive - in the present tense, a verb phrase consisting of to followed by the base form of the verb (to write) - split inifinitive - one or more words separate to and the verb (to boldly go) - participle - a verbal that functions as an adjective - present participles end in -ing (brimming), past participles end in -d, -ed, or -en (injured, broken) or others (brought, been, gone) - participle phrase - a present or past participle with accompanying modifiers, objects, or complements - the buzzards, circling with sinister determination, squawked loudly Elementary Rules of Usage 1 - Form the possessive singular of nouns by adding 's - Charles's friend, Burn's poems, the witch's malice 2 - In a series of three or more terms with a single conjunction, use a comma after each term except the last - red, white, and blue - he opened the letter, read it, and made a note of its contents - Little, Brown and Company (business names usually omit last comma) 3 - Enclose parenthetic expressions between commas - parenthetic: how much the thought interrupts the flow of the sentence - never leave out just one comma - the best way to see a country, unless you are pressed for time, is to travel on foot - a name or title in direct address is parenthetic - if, Sir, you refuse, I cannot predict what will happen - well, Susan, this is a fine mess you are in - no comma, however, should separate a noun from a restrictive term of identification - Billy the Kid - the novelist Jane Austen - non-restrictive relative clauses that do not serve to limit or define the antecedent noun are parenthetic - as are similar clauses introduced by conjunctions indicating time or place - can be written as two independent sentences - the audience, which had at first been indifferent, became more and more interested - in 1769, when Napoleon was born, Corsica had but recently been acquired by France - Nether Stowey, where Coleridge wrote The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, is a few miles from Bridgewater - restrictive clauses, are not parenthetic and are not set off by commas - cannot be split into two independent sentences - people who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones - participle phrases and appositives are parenthetic if non-restrictive, or not parenthetic if restrictive - people sitting in the rear couldn't hear (restrictive) - my cousin Bob is a talented harpist (restrictive) - Uncle Bert, being slightly deaf, moved forward (non-restrictive) - our oldest daughter, Mary, sings (non-restrictive) - when the main clause of a sentence is preceded by a phrase or subordinate clause, use a comma to separate - partly by hard fighting, partly by diplomatic skill, they enlarged their domains 4 - Place a comma before a conjunction introducing an independent clause - the early records of the city have disappeared, and the story of its first years can no longer be reconstructed - the situation is perilous, but there is still one chance of escape - if a dependent clause requiring to be set off by a comma precedes the second independent clause, no comma is needed after the conjunction - the situation is perilous, but if we are prepared to act promptly, there is still one chance of escape - when the subject is the same for both clauses and is expressed only once, a comma is useful if the connective is but - when the connective is and, the comma should be omitted if the relation between the two statements is close or immediate - I have heard the arguments, but am still unconvinced - he has had several years' experience and is thoroughly competent 5 - Do not join independent clauses with a comma - if two or more clauses grammatically complete and not joined by a conjunction are to form a single compound sentence - use a semicolon, or write as two sentences - Mary Shelley's works are entertaining; they are full of engaging ideas - it is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark - if a conjunction is inserted, use a comma - Mary Shelley's works are entertaining, for they are full of engaging ideas - it is nearly half past five, and we cannot reach town before dark - semicolon is better than separate sentences or comma with conjunction by suggesting close relationship and is briefer - the relationship is commonly one of cause and consequence - if the second clause is preceded by an adverb (accordingly, besides, then, therefore, thus) and not a conjunction, the semicolon is still required - I have never been in the place before; besides, it was dark as a tomb - an exception to the semicolon rule: a comma is preferable when the clauses are short and alike in form, or when tone is easy and conversational - the gates swung apart, the bridge fell, the portcullis was drawn up - I hardly knew him, he was so changed - here today, gone tomorrow 6 - Do no break sentences in two - do not use periods for commas - I met them on a Cunard liner years ago. Coming home from Liverpool to New York. - She was an interesting talker. A woman who had travelled all over the world and lived in half a dozen countries. - it is permissible to make an emphatic word or expression serve the purpose of a sentence - Again and again he called out. No reply. - but the emphasis must be warranted, generally in dialogue when spoken in clipped or fragmentary way - rules 3, 4, 5, and 6 cover the most important principles that govern punctuation and should be thoroughly mastered 7 - Use a colon after an independent clause to introduce a list of particulars, an appositive, an amplification, or an illustrative quotation - a colon tells the reader that what follows is closely related to the preceding clause - the colon has more effect than the comma, less power to separate than the semicolon, and more formality than the dash - it usually follows an independent clause and should not separate a verb from its complement or a preposition from its object - your dedicated whittler requires: a knife, a piece of wood, and a back porch - your dedicated whittler requires three props: a knife, a piece of wood, and a back porch - understanding is that penetrating quality of knowledge that grows from: theory, practice, and conviction - understanding is that penetrating quality of knowledge that grows from theory, practice, and conviction - join two independent clauses with a colon if the second interprets or amplifies the first - but even so, there was a directness and dispatch about animal burial: there was no stopover in the undertaker's foul parlor, no wreath or spray - a colon may introduce a quotation that supports or contributes to the preceding clause - the squalor of the streets reminded her of a line from Oscar Wilde: "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars." 8 - Use a dash to set off an abrupt break or interruption and to announce a long appositive or summary - a dash is a mark of separation stronger than a comma, less formal than a colon, and more relaxed than parentheses - his first thought on getting out of bed - if he hand any thought at all - was to get back in again - the rear axle began to make a noise - a grinding, chattering, teeth-gritting rasp - the increasing reluctance of the sun to rise, the extra nip in the breeze, the patter of shed leaves dropping - all the evidences of fall drifting into winter were clearer each day - use a dash only when a more common mark of punctuation seems inadequate - her father's suspicions proved well-founded - it was not Edward she cared for - it was San Francisco - her father's suspicions proved well-founded. It was not Edward she cared for, it was San Francisco - violence - the kind you see on television - is not honestly violent - there lies its harm - violence, the kind you see on television, is not honestly violent. There lies its harm 9 - The number of subject determines the number of the verb - words that intervene between subject and verb do no affect the number of the verb - the bittersweet flavor of youth - its trials, its joys, its adventures, its challenges - are not soon forgotten - the bittersweet flavor of youth - its trials, its joys, its adventures, its challenges - is not soon forgotten - a common blunder is the use of a singular verb form in a relative clause following "one of..." or a similar expression when the relative is the subject - one of the ablest scientists who has attacked this problem - one of the ablest scientists who have attacked this problem - one of those people who is never ready on time - one of those people who are never ready on time - use a single verb form after each, either, everyone, everybody, neither, nobody, someone - everybody thinks he has a unique sense of humour - although both clocks strike cheerfully, neither keeps good time - with none, use the singular verb when the word means "no one" or "not one" - none of us are perfect - none of us is perfect - a plural verb is commonly used when none suggests more than one thing or person - none are so fallible as those who are sure they're right - a compound subject formed by two or more nouns joined by and almost always requires a plural verb - the walrus and the carpenter were walking close at hand - a singular subject remains singular even if other nouns are connected to it by with, as well as, in addition to, except, together with, no less than - his speech as well as his manner is objectionable - a linking verb agrees with the number of its subject - what is wanted is a few more pairs of hands - the trouble with truth is its many varieties 10 - Use the proper case of pronoun - the personal pronouns, as well as the pronoun who, change form as they function as subject or object - will Jane or he be hired, do you think? - the culprit, it turns out, was he - we heavy eaters would rather walk than ride - who knocks? - give this work to whoever looks idle - Virgil Soames is the candidate whom we think will win - Virgil Soames is the candidate who we think will win - Virgil Soames is the candidate who we hope to elect - Virgil Soames is the candidate whom we hope to elect - in general, avoid "understood" verbs by supplying them - I think Horace admires Jessica more than I - I think Horace admires Jessica more than I do - Polly loves cake more than me - Polly loves cake more than she loves me - the objective case is correct: - the ranger offered Shirley and him some advice on campsites - they came to meet the Baldwins and us - let's talk it over between us, then, you and me - whom should I ask? - use the simple personal pronoun as a subject - Blake and myself stayed home - Blake and I stayed home - Howard and yourself brought the lunch, I thought - Howard and you brought the lunch, I thought - the possessive case of pronouns is used to show ownership - it has two forms: the adjectival modifier (your hat), and the noun form, a hat of yours - the dog has buried one of your gloves and one of mine in the flower bed - gerund usually require the possessive case - mother objected to our driving on icy roads - a present participle as a verbal, takes the objective case - they heard him singing in the shower - the difference between a gerund and a verbal participle is not always obvious - do you mind me asking a question? objection is to me - do you mind my asking a question? objection is to whether a question can be asked at all 11 - A participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer to the grammatical subject - walking slowly down the road, he saw a woman accompanied by two children - walking refers to the subject, he, to refer to the woman: - he saw a woman, accompanied by two children, walking slowly down the road - participial phrases preceded by a conjunction or by a preposition, nouns in apposition, adjectives, and adjective phrases must also refer to the subject if they begin the sentence - on arriving in Chicago, his friends met him at the station - on arriving in Chicago, he was met at the station by his friends - a soldier of proved valour, they entrusted him with the defence of the city - a soldier of proved valour, he was entrusted with the defence of the city - young and inexperienced, the task seemed easy to me - young and inexperienced, I thought the task easy - without a friend to counsel him, the temptation proved irresistible - without a friend to counsel him, he found the temptation irresistible - sentences violating Rule 11 are often ludicrous: - being in a dilapidated condition, I was able to buy the house very cheap - wondering irresolutely what to do next, the clock struck twelve Elementary Principals of Composition 12 - Choose a suitable design and hold to it - writing, to be effective, must follow closely the thoughts of the writer, but not necessarily in the order in which thoughts thoughts occur - planning must be a deliberate prelude to writing; determine the shape of what is to come and pursue that shape 13 - Make the paragraph the unit of composition - begin each paragraph either with a sentence that suggests the topic or with a sentence that helps the transition - the breeze served us admirably - the campaign opened with a series of reverses - the next ten or twelve pages were filled with a curious set of entries - but if this device is used too often, it becomes a mannerism - more commonly, the opening sentence simply indicates by its subject the direction the paragraph is to take - at length I thought I might return towards the stockade - he picked up the heavy lamp from the table and began to explore - another flight of steps, and they emerged on the roof - paragraphing calls for a good eye as well as a logical mind 14 - Use the active voice - the active voice is usually more direct and vigorous than the passive - my first visit to Boston will always be remembered by me - I shall always remember my first visit to Boston - passive still often convenient and sometimes necessary - the dramatists of the Restoration are little esteemed today, subject: dramatists - modern readers have little esteem for the dramatists of the Restoration, subject: modern readers - the habitual use of the active voice makes for forceful writing - when a sentence is made stronger, it usually becomes shorter, brevity is a by-product of vigour - often can be done by substituting a transitive in the active voice for there is or could be heard - there were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground - dead leaves covered the ground - at dawn the crowing of a rooster could be heard - the cock's crow came with dawn - the reason he left college was that his health became impaired - failing health compelled him to leave college - it was not long before she was very sorry that she had said what she had - she soon repented her words 15 - Put statements in positive form - make definite assertions. avoid tame, colorless, hesitating, noncommittal language - use not as a means of denial or in antithesis, never as a means of evasion - he was not very often on time - he usually came late - she did not think that studying Latin was a sensible way to use one's time - she thought the study of Latin a waste of time - The Taming of the Shrew is rather weak in spots. Shakespeare does not portray ... - The women in The Taming of the Shrew are unattractive. Katherine is disagreeable, Biaca insignificant. - the word not is inherently weak - the reader should be told what is, and not what is not - hence, it is better to express even a negative in positive form - not honest, dishonest, not important, trifling, did not remember, forgot - did not pay any attention to, ignored, did not have much confidence in, distrusted - placing negative and positive in opposition makes for a stronger structure - not charity, but simple justice - not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more - ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country - negative words other than not are usually strong - her loveliness I never knew / until she smiled on me - statements qualified with unnecessary auxiliaries or conditionals sound irresolute - if you would let us know the time of your arrival, we would be happy to arrange your transportation from the airport - if you will let us know the time of your arrival, we shall be happy to arrange your transportation from the airport - applicants can make a good impression by being neat and punctual - applicants will make a good impression if they are neat and punctual - Plath may be ranked among those modern poets who died young - Plath was one of those modern poets who died young - if your every sentence admits a doubt, your writing will lack authority - save would, should, could, may, might and can for situations involving real uncertainty 16 - Use definite, specific, concrete language - prefer the specific to the general, the definite to the vague, the concrete to the abstract - a period of unfavorable weather set in - it rained everyday for a week - he showed satisfaction as he took possession of his well-earned reward - he grinned as he pocketed the coin - all significant details are given, and with such accuracy and vigor that readers, in imagination, can project themselves into the scene - in exposition and in argument, the writer must likewise never lose hold of the concrete - even when dealing with general principles, the writer must furnish particular instances of their application - in proportion as the manners, customs, and amusements of a nation are cruel and barbarous, the regulations of its penal code will be severe - in proportion as men delight in battles, bullfights, and combats of gladiators, will they punish by hanging, burning, and the rack - objective consideration of contemporary phenomena compels the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commesurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must inevitably be taken into account - I returned, and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favor to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. 17 - Omit needless words - vigorous writing is concise - a sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts - this requires not that the writer make all sentences short or avoid all detail and treat subjects only in outline, but that every word tell - the question as to whether, whether, the question whether - there is no doubt but that, no doubt, doubtless - used for fuel purposes, used for fuel - he is a man who, he - in a hasty manner, hastily this subject - this is a subject that, this subject - her story is a strange one, her story is strange - the reason why is that, because - the fact that should be revised out - owing to the fact that, since, because - in spite of the fact that, though, although - call your attention to the fact that, remind you, notify you - I was unaware of the fact that, I was unaware that, did not know - the fact that he had not succeeded, his failure - the fact that I had arrived, my arrival - who is, which was, and the like are often superfluous - his cousin, who is a member of the same firm - his cousin, a member of the same firm - Trafalgar, which was Nelson's last battle - Trafalgar, Nelson's last battle - the active voice is more concise than the passive - a positive statement is more concise than a negative one - a common way to fall into wordiness is to present a single complex idea, step by step, in a series of sentences that might to advantage be combined into one 18 - Avoid a succession of loose sentences - especially loose sentences of a particular type: those consisting of two clauses, the second introduced by a conjunction or relative - a writer may err by making sentences too compact and periodic - an occasional loose sentence prevents the style from becoming too formal and gives the reader a certain relief - consequently, loose sentences are common in easy, unstudied writing - the danger is that there may be too many of them - an unskilled writer will sometimes construct a whole paragraph of sentences of this kind, using as connectives and, but, who, which, when where, while (as nonrestrictives) - The third concert of the subscription series was given last evening, and a large audience was in attendance. Mr. Edward Appleton was the soloist, and the Boston Symphony Orchestra furnished the instrumental music. The former showed himself to be an artist of the first rank, while the latter proved itself fully deserving of its high reputation. The interest aroused by the series has been very gratifying to the Committee, and it is planned to give a similar series annually hereafter. The fourth concert will be given on Tuesday, May 10, when an equally attractive program will be presented. - I believe in aristocracy, though - if that is the right word, and if a democrat may use it. Not an aristocracy of power, based upon rank and influence, but an aristocracy of the sensitive, the considerate and the plucky. Its members are to be found in all nations and classes, and all through the ages, and there is a secret understanding between them when they meet. They represent the true human tradition, the one permanent victory of our queer race over cruelty and chaos. Thousands of them perish in obscurity ,a few are great names. They are sensitive for others as well as for themselves, they are considerate without being fussy, their pluck is not swankiness but the power to endure, and they can take a joke. - a writer who has written a series of loose sentences should recast enough of them to remove the monotony - replace them with simple sentences, sentences of two clauses joined by a semicolon, periodic sentences of two clauses, or sentences (loose or periodic) of three clauses - which ever best represent the real relations of the thought 19 - Express coordinate ideas in similar form - this principle of parallel construction requiers that experssions similar in content and function be outwardly similar - the likeness of form enables the reader to recognize more readily the likeness of content and function - blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven - blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted - blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth - blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled - the unskilled writer often violates this principle, mistakenly believing in the value of constantly varying the form of expression - when repeating a statement to emphasize it, the writer may need to vary its form - otherwise, the writer should follow the principle of parallel construction - formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, while now the laboratory method is employed - formerly, science was taught by the textbook method; now it is taught by the laboratory method - by this principle, an article or a preposition applying to all the members of a series must either be used only before the first term or else be repeated before each term - the French, the Italians, Spanish, and Portuguese - the French, the Italians, the Spanish, and the Portuguese - in spring, summer, or in winter - in spring, summer, or winter, in spring, in summer, or in winter - some words require a particular preposition in certain idiomatic uses - when such words are joined in a compound construction, all the appropriate prepositions must be included, unless they are the same - his speech was marked by disagreement and scorn for his opponents position - his speech was marked by disagreement with and scorn for his opponent's position - correlative expressions (both, and; not, but; not only, but also; either, or; first, second, third) should be followed by the same grammatical construction - many violations of this rule can be corrected by rearranging the sentence - it was both a long ceremony and very tedious - the ceremony was both long and tedius - a time not for words but action - a time not for words but for action - either you must grant his request or incur his ill will - you must either grant his request or incur his ill will - my objections are, first, the injustice of the measure; second, that it is unconstitutional - my objections are, first, that the measure is unjust; second, that it is unconstitutional 20 - Keep related words together - the position of the words in a sentence is the principal means of showing their relationship - confusion and ambiguity result when words are badly placed - the writer must bring together words and groups of words that are related in thought and keep apart those that are not related - he noticed a large stain in the rug that was right in the center - he noticed a large stain right in the center of the rug - you can call you mother in London and tell her all about George's taking you out to dinner for just two dollars - For just two dollars you can call your mother in London and tell her all about George's taking you out to dinner - New York's first commercial human-sperm bank opened Friday with semen samples from eighteen men frozen in a stainless steel bank - New York's first commercial human-sperm bank opened Friday when semen samples were taken from eighteen men. The samples were then frozen and stored in a stainless steel tank - the subject of a sentence and the principle verb should not be separated by a clause that can be transferred to the beginning - unless the interruption is not bothersome (a relative clause or an apposition) or used to create suspense - Toni Morrison, in Beloved, writes about characters who have escaped from slavery but are haunted by its heritage - In Beloved, Toni Morrison writes about characters who have escaped from slavery but are haunted by its heritage - a dog, if you fail to discipline him, becomes a household pest - unless disciplined, a dog becomes a household pest - the relative pronoun should come immediately after its antecedent - there was a stir in the audience that suggested disapproval - a stir that suggested disapproval swept the audience - he wrote three articles about his adventures in Spain, which were published in Harper's magazine - he published three articles in Harper's Magazine about his adventures in Spain - This is a portrait of Benjamin Harrison, who became President in 1889. He was the grandson of William Henry Harrison. - This is a portrait of Benjamin Harrison, grandson of William Henry Harrison, who became President in 1889. - if the antecedent consists of a group of words, the relative comes at the end of the group, unless this would cause ambiguity - the Superintendent of the Chicago Divison, who - a proposal to amend the Sherman Act, which has been various judge - a proposal, which has been variously judged, to amend the Sherman Act... - the grandson of William Henry Harrison, who - William Henry Harrison's grandson, Benjamin Harrison, who - a noun in apposition may come between antecedent and relative, because in such a combination no real ambiguity can arise - the Duke of York, his brother, who was regarded with hostility by the Whigs - modifiers should come, if possible, next to the words they modify - if several expressions modify the same word, they should be arranged so that no wrong relation is suggested - all members were not present - not all the members were present - she only found two mistakes - she found only two mistakes - the director said he hoped all members would give generously to the Fund at a meeting of the committee yesterday - at a meeting of the committee yesterday, the director said he hoped all members would give generously to the Fund - Major R. E. Joyce will give a lecture on Tuesday evening in Bailey Hall, to which the public is invited on "My Experiences in Mesopotamia" at 8:00 p.m. - On Tuesday evening at eight, Major R. E. Joyce will give a lecture in Bailey Hall on "My Experiences in Mesopotamia." The public is invited. 21 - In summaries, keep to one tense - in summarizing the action of a drama, use the present tense - in summarizing a poem, story, or novel, also use the present tense, also can use past if more natural - if the summary is in the present tense, antecedent action should be expressed by the perfect; if in the past, by the past perfect - Chance prevents Friar John from delivering Friar Lawrences's letter to Romeo. Meanwhile, owing to her father's arbitrary change of the day set for her wedding, Juliet has been compelled to drink the potion on Tesuday night, with teh result that Balthasar informs Romeo of her supposed death before Friar Lawrence learns of the nondelivery of the letter. - in presenting the statements or the thought of someone else, as in summarizing an essay or report, do not overwork "she stated", "the author thinks" - indicate clearly at the outset, once for all, that what follows is summary, and then waste no words in repeating the notification - in literary criticism, aim at writing an orderly discussion supported by evidence, not a summary with occasional comment 22 - Place the emphatic words of a sentence at the end - the proper place in the sentence for the word or group of words that the writer desires to make most prominent is usually the end - humanity has hardly advanced in fortitude since that time, though it has advanced in many other ways - since that time, humanity has advanced in many ways, but it has hardly advanced in fortitude - this steel is principally used for mazing razors, because of its hardness - because of its hardness, this steel is used principally for making razors - the word or group of words entitled to this position of prominence is usually the logical predicate - the new element in the sentence - the effectiveness of the periodic sentence arises from the prominence it gives to the main statement - four centuries ago, Christopher Columbus, one of the Italian mariners whom the decline of their own replublics had put at the service of the world and of adventure, seeking for Spain a westward passage to the Indies to offset the achievement of Portuguese discoverers, lighted on America - with these hopes and in this belief I would urge you, laying aside all hindrance, thrusting away all private aims, to devote yourself unswervingly and unflinchingly to the vigorous and successful prosecution of this war - the other prominent position is the beginning, any element other than the subject becomes emphatic when placed first - deceit or treachery she could never forgive - vast and rude, fretted by teh action of nearly three thousand years, the fragments of this architecture may often seem, at first sight, like works of nature - home is the sailor - obsessions tend to find Abbott - a subject coming first in its sentence may be emphatic, but hardly by its position alone - great kings worshipped at his shrine - the emphasis upon kings arises largely from its meaning and from the context, to receive special emphasis, the subject must take the position of the predicate - through the middle of the valley flowed a winding stream - the principal that the proper place for what is to be made most prominent is the end applies equally to the words of a sentence, to the sentences of a paragraph, and to the paragraphs of a composition